kanyanga

Antenna hunhu, antenna kuwana uye kutungamira

Nekuda kweiyo yakakosha dhizaini yeantenna, iyo radiation density inogona kuiswa mune imwe nzvimbo yenzvimbo. Chiyero chekurasika antenna kutungamira ndeye antenna kuwana. Iyo yakabatana zvakanyanya nekutungamira kweiyo antenna. Mukupesana nedirectivity, iyo inongotsanangura inotungamira maitiro eiyo antenna, antenna kuwana zvakare inofunga nezve kugona kweiyo antenna.

radiation

Nokudaro, inomiririra simba chairo rinopenya. Izvi zvinowanzova shoma pane simba rinopihwa nemutumiri. Nekudaro, nekuti simba iri riri nyore kuyera pane kunanga, kuwana antenna kunonyanya kushandiswa pane kunanga. Pasi pekufungidzira kwekutarisa antenna isingarasikike, iyo yakananga inogona kuiswa yakaenzana neiyo antenna kuwana.

radiation

Iyo referensi antenna inoshandiswa kutsanangura iyo antenna kuwana. Muzhinji, iyo antenna yereferenzi ndeye isingarasikike inofungidzirwa omnidirectional radiator (isotropic radiator kana antenna) inopenya zvakafanana mumativi ese, kana iri nyore dipole antenna, zvirinani mundege inoonekwa inoreva.

radiation

Kuti antenna kuyerwa, iyo radiation density (simba pachikamu nharaunda) inotarwa pane imwe nzvimbo pane imwe chinhambwe uye ichienzaniswa nekukosha kunowanikwa uchishandisa referensi antenna. Kuwana kweAntenna ndiyo chiyero chemazana maviri eradiation densities.

radiation

Semuyenzaniso, kana antenna inotungamira ikaburitsa mazana maviri eradiation density pane isotropic antenna mune imwe nzvimbo yenzvimbo, kukosha kweiyo antenna kuwana G i200 kana 200 dB.

radiation

Antenna Pattern

Antenna pateni inomiririra inomiririra yekugovera kwenzvimbo kwesimba rinovhenekerwa neantenna. Zvichienderana nemashandisirwo, antenna inofanirwa kugamuchira kubva kune imwe nzira chete asi kwete masaini kubva kune mamwe maratidziro (semuenzaniso TV antenna, radar antenna), kune rimwe divi antenna yemotokari inofanirwa kugashira ma transmit kubva kune ese anogoneka nzira.

radiation

Iyo antenna radiation pateni inomiririra inomiririra yezvinhu zveantenna radiation maitiro. Iyo antenna pateni kazhinji inomiririra inomiririra yeinotungamira maitiro eiyo antenna. Inomiririra kusimba kwemwaranzi yesimba kana huwandu hwemagetsi kana magineti esimba remagineti sebasa rekutungamira kweantenna. Madhayagiramu eAntenna anoyerwa kana kugadzirwa nemapurogiramu ekuenzanisa pakombuta, semuenzaniso, kuratidza zvakajeka kurongeka kweradar antenna uye nekudaro kufungidzira kuita kwayo.

radiation

Kuenzaniswa neomnidirectional antennas, iyo inopenya zvakaenzana kumativi ese endege, inotungamira antennas inofarira imwe nzira uye nekudaro inowana kureba kwairi munzira ine yakaderera yekufambisa simba. Antenna radiation mapatani anoratidza zvinofarirwa zvakatemwa nezviyero. Nekuda kwekudzokorora, zvakafanana kutapurirana uye kugamuchira hunhu hweantenna hunovimbiswa. Dhiagiramu inoratidza kugoverwa kwekutungamira kwesimba rekufambisa sesimba remunda uye kunzwisiswa kweantenna panguva yekugamuchira.

radiation

Iyo inodiwa inotungamira inowanikwa kuburikidza neinotarirwa mechanical uye magetsi ekuvaka antenna. Kutungamira kunoratidza kuti antenna inogamuchira sei kana kutumira mune imwe nzira. Iyo inomiririrwa mune graphical inomiririra (antenna pateni) sebasa reazimuth (yakachinjika chirongwa) uye kukwirisa (yakatwasuka zano).

radiation

Shandisa Cartesian kana polar coordinate system. Kuyera mumifananidzo inomiririra inogona kuve nemutsara kana logarithmic kukosha.

radiation

Shandisa akawanda mafomati ekuratidzira. Cartesian coordinate system, pamwe nepolar coordinate system, zvakajairika. Chinangwa chikuru ndechekuratidza mumiriri wemwaranzi pateni yakachinjika (azimuth) kune yakazara 360 ° inomiririra kana yakatwasuka (kukwirisa) kazhinji chete kune 90 kana 180 madhigirii. Iyo data kubva kune antenna inogona kumiririrwa zvirinani mumakongisheni eCartesian. Sezvo idzi data dzichigonawo kudhindwa mumatafura, iyo inotsanangurwa yakawanda trajectory curve inomiririra mumapolar coordinates inowanzofarirwa. Kusiyana neCartesian coordinate system, izvi zvinoratidzira zvakananga gwara.

radiation

Kuti zvive nyore kunyengedza, kujeka, uye hukuru hwakasiyana-siyana, mapatani emwaranzi anowanzo kujairika kumapendero ekunze eiyo coordination system. Izvi zvinoreva kuti kukosha kwepamusoro kuyerwa kunopindirana ne0 ° uye kunorongwa pamucheto wepamusoro wechati. Kumwe kuyerwa kwemwaranzi maitiro anowanzo kuratidzwa mudB (decibels) zvine chekuita neiyi kukosha kwepamusoro.

radiation

Chiyero mumufananidzo chinogona kusiyana. Kune marudzi matatu ezvikero zvekuronga zvinowanzoshandiswa; linear, linear logarithmic uye yakagadziridzwa logarithmic. Iyo mutsara chiyero inosimbisa iyo huru yemwaranzi danda uye kazhinji inodzvanya ese eparutivi lobes sezvo achiwanzo ari pasi peimwe muzana yeiyo huru lobe. Nekudaro, iyo linear-log chiyero inomiririra mativi lobes zvakanaka uye inosarudzwa kana mazinga eese eparutivi lobes akakosha. Nekudaro, inopa fungidziro yeantenna yakaipa nekuti iyo huru lobe idiki. Iyo yakagadziridzwa logarithmic scale (Figure 4) inosimbisa chimiro chedanda guru paunenge uchimanikidza yakaderera-level (<30 dB) sidelobes yakananga pakati peiyo modhi. Naizvozvo, iyo huru lobe yakakura zvakapetwa kaviri seyakasimba yedivi lobe, iyo inobatsira pakuratidzwa kwekuona. Nekudaro, iyi fomu yekumiririra haiwanzo kushandiswa mune tekinoroji nekuti inonetsa kuverenga data chaiyo kubva mairi.

radiation

radiation



horizontal radiation pattern

Iyo yakatwasuka antenna dhayagiramu iratidziro yechirongwa chemagetsi emagetsi eiyo antenna, inoratidzwa sendege ine mativi maviri yakatarisana neantenna.

Kufarira kweichi chinomiririra kungowana kurongeka kweiyo antenna. Kazhinji, kukosha -3 dB kunopihwawo sedenderedzwa rakadhindwa pachiyero. Mharadzano iri pakati peiyo huru lobe uye denderedzwa inoguma mune inonzi inonzi hafu-simba bhindauko reiyo antenna. Mamwe maparamendi ari nyore kuverenga ndiwo chiyero chepamberi / chekudzoka, ndiko kuti, reshiyo pakati peiyo huru lobe uye inoteedzera lobe, uye saizi uye negwara redivi relobes.

radiation

radiation

Kune radar antennas, reshiyo pakati pehombe huru nedivi lobe yakakosha. Iyi parameter inobata zvakananga kuongororwa kweradar anti-interference degree.

radiation

vertical radiation pattern

Chimiro chepateni yakatwasuka inzira yakatwasuka yemufananidzo une mativi matatu. Muchikamu chepolar chinoratidzwa (chikamu chechina chedenderedzwa), nzvimbo yeantenna ndiyo mavambo, X-axis ndiyo radar renji, uye Y-axis ndiyo inotariswa kureba. Imwe yeantenna yekuyera matekiniki ndeye solar stroboscopic kurekodha uchishandisa yekuyera chishandiso RASS-S kubva kuIntersoft Electronics. Iyo RASS-S (Radar Analysis Support System yeSaiti) ndeye radar inogadzira-yakazvimiririra sisitimu yekuongorora zvinhu zvakasiyana zveradar nekubatanidza kune masaini agara aripo, pasi pemamiriro ekushanda.

radiation

Mufananidzo 3: Yakatwasuka antenna pateni ine cosecant square hunhu

Mumufananidzo 3, mayuniti ekuyera ndiwo mamaira emugungwa ekurenga uye tsoka dzehurefu. Nezvikonzero zvenhoroondo, aya maviri mayuniti ekuyerwa achiri kushandiswa mukufambisa kwemhepo. Aya mayunitsi ane kukosha kwechipiri nekuda kwekuti huwandu hwemwaranzi yakarongwa inotsanangurwa seyemwero. Izvi zvinoreva kuti boresight yakawana kukosha kwe (theoretical) yepamusoro-soro yakaverengwa nerubatsiro rweradar equation.

radiation

Chimiro chegirafu chinopa chete ruzivo runodiwa! Kuti uwane kukosha kwakakwana unoda chikamu chechipiri chakayerwa pasi pemamiriro akafanana. Iwe unogona kufananidza iwo maviri magirafu uye kuona yakawandisa kuwedzera kana kuderera mukuita kweantenna.

radiation

Radials zvicherechedzo zvemakona ekusimudza, pano mumatanho ehafu-degree. Kuenzana kuenzana kwe x- uye y-axes (mafiti akawanda maringe nemanautical mamaira mazhinji) kunokonzeresa nzvimbo isina mutsara pakati pezvicherechedzo zvepamusoro. Kureba kunoratidzwa semutsara wegridhi pateni. Chechipiri (dashed) gidhi inonangidzirwa pa curvature yePasi.

radiation

Matatu-dimensional anomiririra eantenna madhayagiramu akawanda anogadzirwa nekombuta. Kazhinji yenguva iyo inogadzirwa nemapurogiramu ekufananidza uye maitiro avo anoshamisa ari pedyo neayo chaiwo akayerwa mapurani. Kugadzira mepu yekuyera yechokwadi zvinoreva kuyerwa kukuru, sezvo pixel yega yega yemufananidzo inomiririra kukosha kwayo kwekuyera.

radiation

Chimiro chetatu-dimensional yeantenna pateni muCartesian coordinates kubva kune radar antenna pamota.
(Simba rinopihwa mumazinga akakwana! Naizvozvo, mapurogiramu mazhinji ekuyeresa antenna anosarudza kubvumirana pane chinomiririra ichi. Chete zvikamu zvakati sandara uye zvakachinjika zvedhiyagiramu kuburikidza neantenna zvinogona kushandiswa sezviyero chaizvo.

radiation

Mamwe mapikseli ese anoverengerwa nekuwanza kuyerwa kwese curve yeplot yakatwasuka nechiyero chimwe chechikamu chakachinjika. Simba rekombuta rinodiwa rakakura. Kunze kwekumiririra kunofadza mumharidzo, kubatsirwa kwayo hakuna mubvunzo, sezvo pasina ruzivo rutsva runogona kuwanikwa kubva kune inomiririra kana ichienzaniswa nembiri yakapatsanurwa mapurani (yakatwasuka uye yakatwasuka antenna plots). Pane zvinopesana: kunyanya munzvimbo dzepamhepo, magirafu anogadzirwa neichi kukanganiswa anofanira kutsauka zvakanyanya kubva kune chokwadi.

radiation

Pamusoro pezvo, 3D zvirongwa zvinogona kumiririrwa muCartesian uye polar coordination.

radiation

Iyo beamwidth yeradar antenna inowanzo nzwisiswa sehafu-simba bhiza. Iyo peak radiated intensity inowanikwa munhevedzano yezviyero (kunyanya mune anechoic chamber) uyezve mapoinzi ari kudivi ripi neripi renhongonya, anomiririra kusimba kwepamusoro kwakasimudzwa kusvika pahafu yesimba. Nharaunda yeangular pakati pehafu-simba mapoinzi inotsanangurwa se beamidth. [1] Hafu yesimba mumadecibel i −3 dB, saka hafu yesimba inopenya

Related Posts